Jul 9, 2020

A Cosmic Portrait of Henri Rousseau

Astrology of The Artist, plus, Henri Rousseau's The Dream :

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Henri_Rousseau_005.jpg

A Cosmic Portrait of the Artist by Jude Cowell

Biographical details concerning the life of painter Henri Rousseau usually include the fact that a certain mystique surrounded him. He's not quite in the 'not much is known' category of famous artists but he comes pretty close. So let's see if his natal horoscope and planets (RR: B if you care for a peek, or a glance, below) can lift at least a corner of the veil of secrecy that enshrouds the life, personality, and creativity of Henri Rousseau. Note that some differences exist between the two bio sketches linked here--ex: one says two wives, 7 children, none lived, the other says 4 children, one lived; either way I suggest that his 'childlike' paintings full of mystery, darkness, threat, and violence may have been inspired by the tragic loss of his children, and in 1888 of his beloved wife, Clemence Boitard, his landlord's daughter, whom he had married in 1869. And you know that Rousseau never visited the locations he painted but studied his subjects from books, at the zoo, and from a taxidermy museum! Thus his paintings depict "landscapes of the mind" - and his personal mystique comes in part through a mystical Neptune-Pluto sextile.

Moving to Paris in 1868, and after years working as a successful civil servant (customs official), Rousseau taught himself to paint at age 40 and curiously, the distance between his natal Sun @00Gemini (adult personality) and Moon @10Cancer12 (childhood personality--his in the 5th house of Children and Creative Pursuits)--is 40 degrees 10 minutes. Therefore, in the degree-for-a-year way of progressing a horoscope, this syncs perfectly with one life cycle or phase of activity coming to a close as conscious (Sun) and unconscious (Moon) symbolically culminated with a Progressed Full Moon @8Cap28 (Sun 8Can28) in August 1884, the year he took up a paint brush, eventually devoting himself to Creative Pursuits full time. The very creative Rousseau also wrote poetry and composed music (ex: a waltz for his wife!) so where can we see these natural talents in his natal chart?

Paintings with Long-Lasting Appeal

Through the years Rousseau's creations have often been deemed "childlike" and "innocent" yet as noted above, there are also strands of darkness running through them such as in his Jungle Art with its predatory tigers and other animals 'lurking' (my word!) behind leaves and vines (spy them in The Dream, above!) The childlike quality in many of his paintings makes sense when we consider that his Sun is in Gemini, Mercurial sign of the child, while his Moon is happily in Cancer, sign of Family, Mother, and Home (he didn't willingly wander far from it, apparently).

So if you look at his natal horoscope, you'll see I've scribbled my study notes upon the chart and in the lower right corner, you can see listed a famous composer who shared Rousseau's Sun Gemini-Moon Cancer personality blend: Igor Stravinsky. I've added a (musical) quote from Stravinsky because it could easily apply to the appealing Art of Henri Rousseau, "My music is best understood by children and animals." And so it appears that every viewer's 'inner child' can be reached by gazing at the masterful artwork of Henri Rousseau!

Creative Talent in His Natal Horoscope

There are multiple indications of art talent found in Rousseau's natal chart including creative Neptune in novelty-loving Aquarius - rising at his birth. Basically, Rousseau Is Neptune. But there's more for Neptune is part of a Minor Grand Trine (highlighted in greenish turquoise) between Mars trine Neptune, then both planets sextile powerful, transformative Pluto - all at 23 degrees, an indication of something karmic going on beneath the surface and I suspect it's inherited talent which may have stayed hidden until about age 40. Actually, a Mars-Neptune trine is super creative on its own but add intense Pluto in a Minor Grand Trine pattern and the qualities of the planetary configuration deepen and allow the power of his images to transform the viewer. However, the addition of underworld Pluto to Mars and Neptune can also add dreams of violence and aggression. Yet the Mars-Neptune trine suggests a double-Pisces influence of mysticism, fated romance/s, and creativity that has a healing quality.

Now below you see his natal chart with hard working Saturn joyful in the 12th house of the Unconscious from which creativity flows (12th house = work in isolation, peace and quiet needed); Saturn is placed in futuristic Aquarius conjunct dedicated worker Vesta, one of the feminine archetypes in Astrology:

Now as you know, Saturn rules form, structure, and realism, and for creative projects Saturn forms a container for Uranian ideas to be poured into. This was easy for Rousseau for as you see, his practical Saturn (his chart-ruler) sextiles (60 degrees) genius planet Uranus with both planets as chart-ruler if you, dear reader, consider Uranus as a ruler, co-ruler, or the higher octave planet of Aquarius (and Saturn the sign's traditional ruler). Well, obviously, an easy aspect between Saturn and Uranus is excellent for creativity, for bringing into reality one's ideas, for giving them form and substance. And having the North Node of future direction conjunct Midheaven ('MC'), the Career and Public Status Point, brings public recognition and fame, even if it's delayed until the end of life.

Plus, there's another indication of artistic talent - his charming Moon-Venus conjunction in 5th house! This aspect denotes pleasant relationships especially with women (his mother must have been loving and lovely), a happy home life (yet unfortunately marred by the loss of children, as noted), and a compassionate nature which may have been supported by Rousseau's first house Jupiter in compassionate Pisces. Yet drugs, including alcohol consumption, may have tagged along with excessive Jupiter in mutable, often weak, Pisces. If so, he was no different than other creatives of his day. And there's erratic planet Uranus also rising in first house (Physical Body; Self) and there's really no telling how quirkily the planet of chaos in 1st house affected his behavior - made him 'an original' with a preference for solitude, I suspect, and maybe a little cantankerous at times. Well, the sign of Uranus describes something about behavior and in Rousseau's case, this would be pioneering Aries, ruled by energetic Mars, which is posited in the 4th house of Domestic Scene and one of the Psychological houses as well. This suggests that not all was sweetness and light in the home for angry quarrels may have broken the peace at times, or perhaps some measure of blame was cast for various reasons. Plus, Mars and Aries can suggest someone with a me-first attitude toward others which is seldom easy to live with. Of course, this relates to young Rousseau's father's behavior and to Henri himself as an adult: like father, like son.

Certainly, misunderstandings could occur as within every relationship with Rousseau's poverty adding its own aggravations to issues and difficulties at hand. And it's even possible that rigid Saturn, the 'earthly father' archetype, tilting a BOWL pattern of his planets, reveals a lack of experience in various spheres of life and this may have caused instances of misunderstandings within the realms of his empty signs and houses: 7th house Leo (except for wounded/wounding Chiron - was wounded pride a tender issue for his ego? his painting were rejected multiple times), Virgo, sign of The Critic (the Virgo-Pisces victim-savior polarity intercepted across the 1/7 relationship axis - thus karmic and unconscious), 8th house Venus-ruled Libra (but with psychological planet Pluto in Mars-ruled Aries opposite in 2nd house), 9th house Scorpio, the intense, brooding sign ruled by lusty Mars, 10th house Sagittarius, the Jupiter-ruled sign of The Seeker, and 11th house Saturn-ruled Capricorn, sign of duty and maturity. That's a lot of missed life experiences and areas to know little about! However, Rousseau did take care of his mother after the death of his father which is a major credit to his sense of responsibility. Kudos for him!

Now in closing, a word about Henri Rousseau's Pre-natal Solar Eclipse ('PE' in 10th house) @28Sag44 in the 8 North Saros Series. Here we come close to approaching a significant essence of the artist for 8 North is an indicator of unusual themes with potentials for: 'flashes of genius, visions, vivid dreams, insights, good ideas, intuitive leaps, new-found inspiration'. When affecting the individual, 8 North times a period when he is pulled away from relationships or his social life by a need to be free, "if only for a few weeks." This causes "strain in the private life" (Brady's Predictive Astrology). And more quarrels at home perhaps? These eclipse themes would have come around approximately every 19.6 years to inspire his work and/or to create relationship problems! Plus, planetary transits and progressions could set them off, positively or negatively.

Henri Rousseau's life spanned from May 21, 1844 until his death on September 2, 1910 in Paris, I regret to say, from blood poisoning (gangrene). And as you well know, images of his paintings may be found in various art museums and all across the Internet so you'll have no trouble viewing them!

Well, this concludes my Cosmic Portrait of Henri Rousseau and I hope some benefit is derived from it in some way. If so, your generous Shares would be much appreciated! Jude

Another Cosmic Profile of a Famous Artist: Astro-Notes on the Personality of Edouard Manet.


Jun 19, 2020

Annular Solar Eclipse in Cancer on the Solstice 21st June 2020: The Scottish Astrologer

June 2020: Here is The Scottish Astrologer with astrological observations concerning the Summer Solstice 2020 Solar Eclipse @00Cancer, one of the four Cardinal World Points of manifestation:

Jun 3, 2020

Astro-Notes: the Personality of Edouard Manet

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Edouard_Manet_-_Berthe_Morisot_With_a_Bouquet_of_Violets_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg

Astro-Notes on Edouard Manet: A genius (Sun Aquarius) in Art (Libra Moon)

by Jude Cowell

As you know, it's common in Natal Astrology that studying the natal horoscopes of long-ago figures, no matter how prominent, is frustrated by the fact that no exact birth time is known and often 'noon' is chosen to set up their charts but without the input of a correct Ascendant (Self) and Midheaven (The Goal). Plus, knowing a correct birth time allows the placement of natal planets in their houses (departments of life) so obviously, these two chart angles are important for gaining a fuller picture of the native.

Well, fortunately, this is not an issue with the natal horoscope of the artist many historians have called, "the first modern painter," Edouard Manet for his birth data is rated AA for accuracy! Follow the link for a view of his natal chart if you wish but a few details are included below concerning Manet's double Air Sun Aquarius-Moon Libra personality blend. Now many moons ago when I attended art school in Atlanta, Georgia, Manet was a favorite artist of mine so this post is a labor of love and curiosity!

Edouard Manet born January 23, 1832 7:00 pm LMT Paris, France to a prominent family and under the influence of Sun Aquarius-Moon Libra, an intellectual, cultured, and independent blend of energies (Saturn-Uranus; Venus). In fact, this blend's airiness can tend the native toward an overly abstract approach to life, if not to Art. As you know, Manet has been termed "the first modern painter" and counted several Impressionist painters among his friends. Developing the all prima painting technique ('all at once' - wet layers of paint applied upon wet layers), Manet is also known as "a genius of modern art" which can be seen by his Sun and Uranus in Aquarius! His "innovative realist" style of painting is identifiable via his Aquarian Uranus, the genius and innovator, and natal Saturn, planet of realism, in the practical workaholic sign of Mercury-ruled Virgo.

For as you know, Uranian genius needs a Saturnian vessel to pour into otherwise ideas remain without practical application in the real world and expression of this ability depends upon the aspect between the two planets. In Manet's natal chart we find a Saturn-Uranus inconjunct which suggests a resistance to change so it took some attitude adjustments before he could adopt new techniques in his work. Plus, this inconjunct can lead to conflict in relationships as well and hints that others could 'see' or appreciate his talents more clearly than he could - at least early on in his career.

And regretfully I must add that a Saturn-Uranus inconjunct (or, quincunx; 150 degrees) can denote the development of arthritis and/or a "sudden loss of limbs/amputation" (Ebertin) - and Manet suffered both!

For on August 30, 1883, at age 51, he died from rheumatism and untreated syphilis contracted during his 40s (natal Moon conjunct Lilith, the seductress). Sadly his final years were spent partially paralyzed and, as we can see from his age at death (51), Manet's Chiron in Taurus (in Astrology the Christ archetype of the Wounded Healer, often depicted as lame) may have been involved since he expired only 11 days after his left foot was amputated due to gangrene.

Further more, it's worth noting that the orbit of centaur Chiron (approximately 50 years in duration) passes between the orbits of planets Saturn and Uranus which symbolically forms a bridge between our earthly and spiritual natures!

And this creates an uplifting note on which to close this astro-tribute to one of my favorite artists of all time, and provides a chance for me to say, May Edouard Manet R.I.P.

~:~

For more information, here are biographical notes on Edouard Manet including a few views of his paintings, plus, the Royal Academy of Arts recently published an don't-miss video presentation of Manet: Portraying Life.


May 5, 2020

David Hamblin's The Spirit of Numbers

May 5, 2020: Here's master astrologer David Cochrane (see his videos in the sidebar) in 2016 sharing with us The Spirit of Numbers, a book on the topic of Harmonics in Astrology authored by David Hamblin which reveals his latest research in this fascinating branch of Astrology.

And as you know, David Hamblin's previous book Harmonic Charts: A New Dimension in Astrology, first published in 1983, is a classic:

And here, in his own words, David Hamblin explains that he has reached conclusions about the "spirit' of numbers up to 31!

Feb 27, 2020

Heredity, Environment, and Character as Destiny: Alan Leo

February 27, 2020: You know how 'they' say that character is destiny and how Astrology says that how we begin is how we end? Well, here are some interesting notes quoted from The Progressed Horoscope by 'the father of modern astrology' Alan Leo (1860--1917) on the soulful issues of heredity, environment, and character as destiny--all of which can be determined through astrological principles:

"Heredity supplies the vessel,--pure or impure according to past causes in previous lives,--by an affinity of physical particles, like attracting like.

Environment gives conditions in which expression may be made of the latent qualities inherent in the soul, and it harmonises with the actual needs and requirements of the soul in order that the latter may obtain its freedom from the fate of other previous lives by paying off old debts it has incurred and by developing those traits of character for the lack of which the continued evolution of the soul, at the point then reached, would be delayed.

Character is that inherent quality of the soul which it brings with it as a asset , and is the 'root of merit' through which it is either susceptible and conformable to the environment, or rises above and dominates, alters or changes it.

In this sense Character becomes Destiny." - Alan Leo.

Perhaps here I should state that yours truly is a Saturnian astrologer so to me, "past lives" always refers to the DNA found in natal charts - to our ancestors and their "old debts" and issues handled well or poorly during their lifetimes and passed down through the generations as our inherited traits and issues which we can either flub, or deal with successfully (which leads to karmic progress). Also, my belief is that when our Creator breathed the breathe of Life into His creations "man became a living soul" (KJV) - not that we 'have' a soul that can 'bargained with' - but that we are souls! Therefore, in many instances when authors refer to 'the soul', I take it to mean the spirit for we are souls (persons) gifted with the Spirit of Life which, at death, "returns to God who gave it." Now you may disagree as you wish, but there it is!

For the curious, here's a view of the B-rated natal horoscope of Alan Leo (nee William Frederick Allan) born August 7, 1860 5:49 am GMT Westminster, England (chart also seen, below) with Sun, Mercury Rx, Jupiter, South Node, Saturn (rising), and Ascendant in Leo, and Midheaven ('MC') in wealth-loving Taurus conjunct his 9th house Pluto in Taurus ('the urge to acquire'--Ebertin). A different birth time is available as well--6:10 am GMT with 00Virgo rising which makes his 12th house Mercury in Leo his chart-ruler rather than his Leo Sun (at 5:49 am = ASC 27Leo03 with Saturn upon it--see chart, below).

Either way, royal Regulus rises with Saturn, ruler of Astrology, and his 5th house Mars @20Capricorn (a critical degree) is Rx, out-of-bounds (acting out of the mainstream: Astrology as a profession!), and leads a Locomotive shape of his planets suggesting a ruthless, high-powered executive determined on success, particularly during his Mars stage of life (25 to 35 years of age or so). Born during a Disseminating lunar phase, Alan Leo tended to spread information to the world through writings and consultations.

Dual Image: lower left, Alan Leo Natal Horoscope (5:49 am GMT); upper right, the same natal chart progressed to the date, hour, and location of his death; please enlarge the image to read my messily scribbled study notes:

Also we may wish to consider the Prenatal Solar Eclipse Saros Series ('PE') that Alan Leo was born into, the 6 South which for him perfected on July 18, 1860 @26Can05 in natal 11th house of Group Associations. A PE in Moon-ruled Cancer suggests karmic family ties, imagination, sensitivity, receptivity, and possibly psychism--and reveals that emotional extremes can block karmic progress (R. Lineman). 6 South themes are: 'manic energy; being forceful and taking power; great force or strength manifesting in relationships; sudden events may occur; exerting huge effort in some group activity' (paraphrasing Brady's Predictive Astrology).

Credited with the concept of 'destiny is character', death arrived for Alan Leo, the legendary astrologer and Theosophist, on August 30, 1917 at 10:00 am GMT, Bude, England. And curiously, as you see in his SP chart, above, there are midpoint pictures in the chart but there are no aspects between his SP planets at all, may he R.I.P., for his work on Earth is done.


Feb 23, 2020

Mars-Nemesis and Dorothy Kilgallen

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dorothy_Kilgallen_1946.png

As a young but avid TV viewer in the mid-1950s onward, I remember reporter and TV show panelist Dorothy Kilgallen but it was only years later that I discovered her death had been ruled a suicide from a mixture of alcohol and barbituates. Looking back on the 1960s at this late date, the circumstances of Miss Kilgallen's demise seem suspect due to the criminal cases she reported on including the assassination of John F. Kennedy, who was her friend.

Now for the curious, a view of her natal horoscope is available but with no known birth hour (noon is shown), plus, a rectified hour of 9:18 pm CST (by Starkman) is noted (ASC 15AQ59; MC 5Sag18).

Born in Chicago, Illinois on July 3, 1913, Dorothy Kilgallen's natal Sun (11Can10 at noon with ASC 10Lib35; MC 12Can25 which positions her natal Jupiter Rx at IC) was paired by either a Gemini Moon or a Cancer Moon. Now Gemini, sign of the writer, seems appropriate to me yet both the noon and 9:18 pm horoscopes show natal Moon in its own sign of Cancer.

And if born during a Balsamic lunar phase (just prior to a New Moon), Miss Kilgallen may have been something of a prophet which would resonate with her Prenatal Solar Eclipse Saros Series ('PE') in Aries--in 1913 the 5 North, which gifts its natives with prophetic insights, correct hunches which may be reliably acted upon, and flashes of intuition. A useful talent for an intrepid reporter and journalist but one which may very well have contributed to the tragic death of The Reporter who Knew Too Much. Additionally, people born under the influence of an Aries solar eclipse are not easily intimidated and tend to confront issues and people directly and fearlessly. Unfortunately, for a lady delving into the activities of organized crime figures and/or other criminals (ex: assassins), such courage may lead to unintended consequences.

For on the afternoon of November 8, 1965, the day the lady's remains were discovered in her Manhattan condominium, the Moon in Taurus conjoined her natal Mars (12Tau07) and her natal Nemesis (12Tau04). As you know, malevolent Mars-Nemesis is a dangerous combination of energies and on that day perhaps the Moon acted as a timing agent (3:42 pm est NYC with her natal Jupiter Rx at MC, often an angular factor in death horoscopes--although she must have died at some earlier point). Plus, Taurus rules the throat and can signify the ceasing of one's voice in a death chart. Significant? My suspicion is that it very well may be, yet without accurate birth and death hours to go on, that's all I can say about her Mars-Nemesis combination at the present moment.

However, at least one book written about Dorothy Kilgallen reveals that she was found "in the morning" so in my files I have included a horoscope for November 8, 1965 at 9:24:42 am est NYC--only because this moment is "in the morning" and places her noon birth chart's Ascendant (ASC = physical body) @10Lib35:27 at Midheaven ('MC'), the most visible point in any horoscope. Of course, this hour creates yet another speculative horoscope to work with, however, I recommend the chart to you if you're interested in this particular tragic event whether an 'accidental overdose' or not.

In closing, I'll add that the PE prior to her death perfected on May 30, 1965 @9Gem13 in the 3 North Saros Series with themes of 'news that transforms a situation and causes worry or obsession' (paraphrasing Brady's Predictive Astrology). Sounds about right for a very curious lady communicator during the crime-laden 1960s who was known to be a bulldog-with-a-bone type of newspaper reporter. The daughter of a reporter, Miss Kilgallen would not let go of a story and may have discovered new information concerning one of the crimes she was investigating for a book she intended to write. Needless to say, the book did not get written.

And so if you, dear reader, are aware of any details concerning this tragic matter which some would call a 'cold case', or have studied the horoscopes yourself, please let me know your thoughts either in an on-topic comment with this post, or at my contact address judecowell at gmail dot com.

Naturally, confidentiality is assured and remember - your Shares of my posts are always much appreciated! jc

Update March 1, 2020: here's a PDF of a recent letter from author and Kilgallen advocate Mark Shaw on the topic of opening the Kilgallen murder case--not re-opening the case because there wasn't one whe there should have been. I hope you can open the document and read it. jc


Feb 14, 2020

Horoscope: St. Valentines Day Massacre

February 14, 2020

A Bullet-Riddled Historical Horoscope: Capone vs Moran 1929

If you'd been there in a certain Lincoln Park garage the morning of February 14, 1929, say about 10:30 am, you could have witnessed the infamous Valentines Day Massacre. Chicago mobster Al Capone was and is assumed to have been the perpetrator against Bugs Moran, head of Chicago's North Side Gang, but Bugs had retreated from approaching the garage when he spied police officers entering the building. Yes, some of the culprits were only disguised as police officers (see Neptune, planet of disguises, in the chart, below) but Bugs Moran managed to escape Capone's machine guns that day by ducking into a coffee shop.

Al Capone: Sun Capricorn-Moon Aries, a Mars-Saturn combo

The natal horoscope of Alphonse Capone is quite interesting if you care to take a look. Born January 17, 1899 at 9:30 am est in Brooklyn, NY (King's County; RR: C), the 1929 Massacre's gun-toting Mars (@22Gem53 conjunct US natal Mars) conjoined Capone's natal Neptune suggesting a period when his physical efforts were undermined by deception and/or confusion - or, he missed his target--in this case, he missed killing Bugs Moran, the Prohibition gangster who first came up with the bright idea of drive-by shootings. (A 'bright' idea America could've done without.)

In addition, Al Capone's natal Saturn (19Sag27) conjoined the 8th cusp in the 1929 chart, and as you know the 8th is the house of Death. Then there's Al's natal Mars Rx @29Can16, a critical-crisis 29th degree, which conjoined the Massacre's 10:30 am IC of Endings and the Basis of the Matter. From these transits and other chart indicators too numerous to mention in a brief post, I'd say that suspecting that Al Capone was responsible for the murders makes more than a little sense. And under the influence of his Mars-Saturn personality blend, we know that this frustrated planetary pair contains destructive energies unless channeled into positive pursuits. Unfortunately, Alphonse did not use the energies positively.

So is it curious that disruptive, shocking Uranus @5Taurus conjuncts the 12th cusp of Karma and Self-Undoing at 10:30 am? This makes me wonder if at some point, someone involved in this heinous crime uttered the immortal words, they had it coming.

In the End: Al Capone died of a cerebral hemorrhage on January 25, 1947 at 7:25 pm in Miami, FL; George 'Bugs' Moran died of lung cancer on February 25, 1957 in Leavenworth Prison, Kansas, and is buried there.

An Image of Crime Family Quarrels and Conflicts circa 1929

So as you see in the chart, vicious Algol of Medusa fame, star of rage and fury, rises with the karmic North Node, and karmic planet Saturn @28Sag12 in the 8th house leads a Locomotive shape of the planets which denotes a ruthless executive demanding success. Plus, a high-flying Kite pattern is evident with disguising Neptune at a critical-crisis degree - planet of deception, fraud, and lies, acts as the 'tail' of the Kite with the Sun (25AQ31) as its 'nose' - success (Kite) through tricks and deceit (Sun opposing Neptune). Plus, the Sun shines upon Tisiphone, asteroid of retaliation and although I don't know the full history of the Capone-Moran relationship, my suspicion is that the 1929 Massacre must have been part of an ongoing gang war for power and control--see Cupido ('The Family'; 'The Syndicate') conjunct South Node and Descendant; Sun-Pluto = Jupiter: urge to expand and acquire wealth, and successful striving for power; Moon-Mars = ASC: establishing rights or privileges within The Family, and taking over leadership; Uranus-Pluto = North Node: an immense task accomplished with others--Ebertin).

Also notable is chart-ruler Venus @12Ari07 but the planet of jealousy and revenge makes no applying Ptolemaic aspects in the chart so her sign (Mars-ruled Aries) and house (Behind-the-Scenes 12th) denote how things proceeded. My guess: revenge taken in a behind-the-scenes location with Venus at the critical-crisis degree of 12 Aries.

Virgo-Pisces: the Victim-Savior Polarity

So there's Icarus @7Pis47, asteroid of assassination and/or of 'flying too high' which is karmically intercepted in the 11th house of Groups; meanwhile, in the 6th house of Work and Service (murders in a garage or warehouse, a mechanic working on a truck was killed, plus 6 more) the Massacre's PE (Prenatal Solar Eclipse Saros Series), the 2 South, indicates a theme of 'joining a new group that offers a better deal' (Brady).

And so my question has to be: was it an offer that couldn't be refused?